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Technical systems to help innovate and move forward

If you are interested in technology, you will know that a single tool is rarely enough to get the job done. Ruth Schwartz Cowan from the University of Pennsylvania makes this clear in her book on the history of technology, published twenty years ago. Instead, we have arrays of technologies which she defines as technical systems. These can become large and complex; think of what is needed to make a computer work from keyboard, through software, hard drives, Internet connection and cloud back-ups.